Located in South Asia, India is bordered by China, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan. The landscape features an upland plateau in the south, an arid desert in the west, and the Himalayan Mountains in the north. The climate ranges from tropical to temperate. Natural resources include arable land, coal, diamonds, limestone, natural gas, titanium ore, and petroleum. India is the world’s seventh-largest country.
As the second-most populous country in the world, India supports over 15 percent of the world’s people and contains about 200 ethnic groups. Nearly 75 percent of India’s inhabitants are Indo-Aryan, a mixture of indigenous and either European or Iranian ancestry. Over 337 million people speak the national language of Hindi. Indians use English mostly in political and commercial communications.
In India, 41.6 percent of the population lives below $1.25 a day, and 75.6 percent of the population lives below $2 a day. 21 percent of India’s population suffers from hunger.
Forced labor is a significant problem in India. Millions of men, women, and children are held in debt bondage and forced to work in brick kilns, rice mills, embroidery factories, and other industries. Women and children are also vulnerable to human trafficking.
Though primary school enrollment has been improving, 40 percent of students, mostly girls, drop out by secondary school.